What’s Selenium? | Simplilearn

Testing is probably the most essential section within the software program growth lifecycle and its fundamental goal is to make sure a bug-free software program that meets buyer necessities. Testing is strenuous because it entails handbook execution of check circumstances towards varied functions to detect bugs and errors. 

However what if we may automate the testing course of? That will make it much less monotonous, and Selenium does simply this. 

Study concerning the scope of automation testing, learn how to automate internet functions, and extra with the Selenium Certification Training. Enroll now!

In case you’re interested by studying extra about automation testing and notably Selenium, then you definately’re in the suitable place. Right here’s what we’ll cowl on this article: 

  1. Challenges with handbook testing
  2. Creation of Selenium 
  3. What’s Selenium?
  4. Selenium suite of instruments 
  5. Benefits of Selenium testing
  6. Limitations of Selenium testing 
  7. Job roles and salaries

Challenges with Guide Testing

Guide testing is without doubt one of the primitive methods of software program testing. It doesn’t require the information of any software testing tool and may virtually check any software. 

The tester manually executes check circumstances towards functions and compares the precise outcomes with desired outcomes. Any variations between the 2 are thought of as defects and are instantly mounted. The checks are then re-run to make sure an totally error-free software. 

Guide testing has its personal drawbacks, nevertheless, a couple of of which might embody:

  • It’s extraordinarily time-consuming
  • There’s a excessive threat of error
  • It requires the presence of a tester 24/7
  • Requires handbook creation of logs
  • Has a restricted scope


Fig: Challenges with handbook testing

Contemplating all of the drawbacks, a determined must automate the testing course of was in demand.

Creation of Selenium

Jason Huggins, an engineer at ThoughtWorks, Chicago, discovered handbook testing repetitive and boring. He developed a JavaScript program to automate the testing of an online software, known as JavaScriptTestRunner. 

Initially, the brand new invention was deployed by the staff at Thoughtworks. Nevertheless, in 2004, it was renamed as Selenium and was made open supply. Since its inception, Selenium has been a strong automation testing device to check varied internet functions throughout totally different platforms. 

What Is Selenium?

Selenium is an open-source, automated testing device used to check internet functions throughout varied browsers. Selenium can solely check internet functions, sadly, so desktop and cellular apps can’t be examined. Nevertheless, different instruments like Appium and HP’s QTP can be utilized to check software program and cellular functions. 


What makes Selenium such a extensively used testing device?

  1. Selenium is simple to make use of because it’s primarily developed in JavaScript
  2. Selenium can check internet functions towards varied browsers like Firefox, Chrome, Opera, and Safari 
  3. Exams could be coded in a number of programming languages like Java, Python, Perl, PHP, and Ruby 
  4. Selenium is platform-independent, which means it could actually deploy on Home windows, Linux, and Macintosh 
  5. Selenium could be built-in with instruments like JUnit and TestNG for check administration 

Selenium Suite of Instruments

Selenium has a devoted suite that facilitates straightforward testing of internet functions. 


                    Fig: Selenium suite

Selenium Built-in Improvement Setting (IDE) 

Developed by Shinya Kasatani in 2006, Selenium IDE is a browser extension for Firefox or Chrome that automates performance. Usually, IDE information person interactions on the browser and exports them as a reusable script. 

IDE was developed to hurry up the creation of automation scripts. It’s a fast prototyping device and can be utilized by engineers with no programming information in any respect.

IDE ceased to exist in August 2017 when Firefox upgraded to a brand new Firefox 55 model, which not supported Selenium IDE. Applitools rewrote the previous Selenium IDE and launched a brand new model in 2019. The most recent model got here with a number of developments. 


      Fig: Selenium IDE

Selenium IDE has a couple of shortcomings: 

  1. It doesn’t help data-driven testing 
  2. It might probably’t carry out database testing
  3. It might probably’t present an in depth check report
  4. It might probably’t export to WebDriver scripts 

Selenium Distant Management (RC) 

Paul Hammant developed Selenium Distant Management (RC). Earlier than we dive into RC, it’s essential to know why RC got here to be within the first place. 

Initially, a device known as Selenium-Core was constructed. It was a set of JavaScript capabilities that interpreted and executed Selenese instructions utilizing the browser’s built-in JavaScript interpreter. Selenium-Core was then injected into the online browser. 

Now, let’s contemplate a JavaScript, check.js utilized by google.com. This program can entry pages like google.com/mail or google.com/login inside the google.com area.


Fig: Selenium RC

Nevertheless, this system can’t entry components of different domains like yahoo.com. Native copies of Selenium-Core and the online browser needed to be put in in order that they belonged to the identical area. That is known as the Identical Origin Coverage, and Selenium RC was launched to deal with this limitation. The server acts as a consumer configured HTTP proxy and “tricks” the browser into believing that Selenium Core and the online software being examined come from the identical origin. 

Therefore, Selenium RC is a server written in Java that makes provision for writing software checks in varied programming languages like Java, C#, Perl, PHP, Python, and so forth. The RC server accepts instructions from the person program and passes them to the browser as Selenium-Core JavaScript instructions. 


Selenium WebDriver 

Developed by Simon Stewart in 2006, Selenium WebDriver was the primary cross-platform testing framework that would configure and management the browsers on the OS degree. It served as a programming interface to create and run check circumstances. 


In contrast to Selenium RC, WebDriver doesn’t require a core engine like RC and interacts natively with browser functions. WebDriver additionally helps varied programming languages like Python, Ruby, PHP, and Perl, amongst others, and could be built-in with frameworks like TestNG and JUnit for check administration. 

The structure of Selenium WebDriver is straightforward and straightforward to grasp: 


                        Fig: Selenium WebDriver structure

  • Selenium check script – Selenium check script is the check code written in any programming language be it Java, Perl, PHP, or Python that may be interpreted by the motive force. 
  • JSON Wire Protocol – JSON Wire Protocol supplies a transport mechanism to switch knowledge between a server and a consumer. JSON Wire Protocol serves as an business commonplace for varied internet providers.
  • Browser drivers – Selenium makes use of drivers particular to every browser to determine a safe reference to the browser.
  • Browsers – Selenium WebDriver helps varied internet browsers to check and run functions on. 

Selenium Grid 

Patrick Lightbody developed a grid with the first goal of minimizing the check execution time. This was facilitated by distributing the check instructions to totally different machines concurrently. Selenium Grid permits the parallel execution of checks on totally different browsers and totally different working techniques. Grid is exceptionally versatile and integrates with different suite parts for simultaneous execution. 


Fig: Selenium Grid

The Grid consists of a hub linked to a number of nodes. It receives the check to be executed together with details about the working system and browser to be run on and picks a node that conforms to the necessities (browser and platform), passing the check to that node. The node now runs the browser and executes the selenium instructions inside it. 

Benefits of Selenium Testing 

Selenium automated testing comes with a number of advantages, resembling: 

  1. Selenium has confirmed to be correct with outcomes thus making it extraordinarily dependable
  2. Since selenium is open-source, anyone prepared to study testing can start for gratis
  3. Selenium helps a broad spectrum of programming languages like Python, PHP, Perl, and Ruby
  4. Selenium helps varied browsers like Chrome, Firefox, and Opera, amongst others 
  5. Selenium is simple to implement and doesn’t require the engineer to have in-depth information of the device
  6. Selenium has loads of re-usability and add-ons 

Grasp essential testing ideas resembling TestNG, Selenium IDE, Selenium Grid, Selenium WebDriver. Take a look at Selenium Certification Training. Enroll now!

Limitations of Selenium Testing 

Selenium has a couple of shortcomings, which might embody: 

  1. Since Selenium is open-source, it doesn’t have a developer neighborhood and therefore doesn’t have a dependable tech help
  2. Selenium can not check cellular or desktop functions 
  3. Selenium gives restricted help for picture testing 
  4. Selenium has restricted help for check administration. Selenium is usually built-in with instruments like JUnit and TestNG for this goal
  5. Chances are you’ll want information of programming languages to make use of Selenium

Job Roles and Salaries 

Now that we’ve realized about Selenium, what concerning the attainable job roles and common wage of a Selenium check engineer? 

Primary Goals for a Selenium Take a look at Engineer: 

  • Develop check circumstances to detect bugs and errors
  • Automation framework design and implementation based on venture construction
  • Enhance and automate check practices
  • Take part in speaking greatest practices
  • Outline check methods and check manuals for monitoring and fixing software program points

Automation Engineer Salaries

The typical wage of an automation engineer in america is $90,390 per 12 months, and in India is ₹5,24,000 per 12 months. 


Greater than 1,000 firms at present deploy Selenium of their tech stacks. Google, Capgemini, TCS, and Infosys are a number of the high tier firms utilizing Selenium at present. 

Grasp the Selenium Suite with Actual-World Examples 

To study extra about Selenium and the way the assorted suite parts work, take a look at Simplilearn’s Selenium Tutorial for Beginners. Within the video, you’ll study concerning the device and have a hands-on demo on the working of Selenium IDE and WebDriver.

Concerned with making a profession as an automation engineer? A certification course will certainly turn out to be useful, so take a look at Simplilearn’s Selenium Certification Training, a course that allows you to grasp the whole Selenium suite. 

The certification course is good for: 

  • Take a look at Managers 
  • Take a look at Engineers 
  • Take a look at Leads
  • Take a look at Analysts
  • QA Engineers 
  • Software program Builders 
  • Engineers who need to study automation testing

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