What’s C Programming? | Simplilearn

The C programming language is a general-purpose, working system-agnostic, and procedural language that helps structured programming and supplies low-level entry to the system reminiscence. Dennis Ritchie invented C language in 1972 at AT&T (then referred to as Bell Laboratory), the place it was applied within the UNIX system on DEC PDP II. It was additionally the successor of the B programming language invented by Ken Thompson. C was designed to beat the issues encountered by BASIC, B, and BPCL programming languages. By 1980, C grew to become the most well-liked language for mainframes, microcomputers, and minicomputers. 

Options of C Programming

Beloved by programmers for doing low-level coding and embedded programming, C has discovered its means regularly into the semiconductor, hardware, and storage industries. An important options supplied by the C programming languages embody:

  • It has inbuilt capabilities and operators that may remedy nearly any complicated drawback
  • C is the mix of each low stage (meeting) and high-level programming languages; additionally, it may be used to write down an utility and work together with low-level system reminiscence and hardware
  • It may be written on virtually any working system and even works in most handheld units
  • Packages written in C are speedy because of the assist supplied by its datatypes and operators
  • It’s simply extendable, as C++ was derived from C with additions like OOPS and different options
  • The capabilities and operators are supported by the libraries supplied by the programming language itself

Features of C

Get a agency basis in C, probably the most generally used programming language in software program growth with the C Programming Course.

C Program (“Hello World”)

#embody <stdio.h>

#embody <conio.h>

int foremost ()

Preprocessor Directives

The #embody within the first line of the C program is known as preprocessor directives. All the preprocessors will begin with the # image. It’s the first line that’s executed, having the library file ending with .h. The stdio.h within the above program may have libraries related to print to the console output. This will even affiliate this system with the library. The compiler to rework this system earlier than compilation will use the preprocessor. Macros are additionally just like preprocessors, however they’re all user-defined and assist in increasing the values in every single place in this system. 

For instance:

#outline AREA=354;

This can substitute the variable AREA with 354 all over the place in this system and requires much less effort by the programmers within the occasion a change is required sooner or later.

Header Recordsdata

There are some normal header information supplied by the language, which can be utilized in this system to do mathematical or logical calculations and even print to the console or information. Within the above instance, you may have used printf operate, which prints the output to the console. The stdio.h header file may have related or related code for printing the output to the console, so it must be included upfront in this system for execution.

foremost() operate

This is a vital operate within the C program inside which the content material of this system or logic or calculation might be written. The primary can have return varieties, and within the above instance, it has an integer because the return varieties. 

Compiling a C Program:

There are a number of methods to compile a C program. You possibly can both use freely obtainable editors supplied by Turbo C. You possibly can download the Turbo C editor over the web; use it to write down a program and compile utilizing the Compile (Alt+ F9) choice, and execute utilizing Run (Ctrl + F9). The Turbo C editor is appropriate for rookies, because the IDE is user-friendly. Nevertheless, in the event you don’t have any IDEs (for instance, in the event you’d wish to execute a C program in Non-GUI environments like UNIX or Linux), you should utilize the next command:

$ gcc helloworld.c

$ . /a.out

Knowledge Sorts

Knowledge varieties are nothing however how the programmers enter, retailer, and manipulate knowledge in this system. Like all different languages, C has quite a lot of knowledge varieties, and they’re primarily categorized as major datatypes, derived knowledge varieties, and user-defined knowledge varieties. 

Main knowledge varieties are those which might be a elementary a part of C programming language and are principally easy to make use of (they’re int, char, float, and void). Int is used to carry entire numbers and may take values like zero, constructive, or unfavorable, however it may’t include unfavorable values. Float and double are used to carry actual numbers, and so they differ from one another in byte measurement. Equally, int can also deal with longer and shorter ranges, that are referred to as brief and lengthy. The desk under summarizes the completely different knowledge varieties and the dimensions every holds in reminiscence.


Measurement (in bytes)

Format Specifier


min 2, usually 4











brief int

2 usually


unsigned int

min 2, usually 4


lengthy int

min 4, usually 8


lengthy lengthy int

min 8


unsigned lengthy int

min 4


unsigned lengthy lengthy int

min 8


signed char



unsigned char



lengthy double

min 10, usually 12 or 16


The format specifier relies on the info kind utilized in this system and is used to inform the compiler the kind of knowledge being processed throughout scanf and printf operate. If the scanf has %d, then it’s processing integer (int), and if it has %c, then it’s processing character.

Derived knowledge varieties are primitive knowledge varieties forming new knowledge buildings referred to as arrays, capabilities, and pointers. For instance, an array can include a homogenous set of primitive knowledge varieties like int, float, or double and may now act as a brand new knowledge kind in C programming language. Features in C are each user-defined and normal library capabilities like scanf(), printf(), will get() and places().

Consumer-defined knowledge varieties are outlined by customers and are often a mix of information varieties or heterogeneous knowledge varieties. For instance, a construction might include:

struct worker


  char title[100];

  int empid;

  float wage;


With the above construction in place, the person can now outline a user-defined knowledge kind as follows:

struct worker information;

Operators in C

Operators are symbols used to carry out mathematical or logical operations on knowledge. The next is the class of operators current in C:

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Relational Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Ternary or Conditional Operators
  • Project Operator

The priority of the operators will specify which might be evaluated first. For instance:

int a=10+10*30

The results of the above assertion is 310 as a result of the multiplication operator is evaluated first, adopted by addition. 


Constants are completely different from variables, as the worth can’t be modified in the course of the due course of this system. There are several types of constants within the C programming language:

  • Decimal
  • Actual or Floating Level
  • Hexadecimal
  • Octal
  • Character
  • String

Management Statements

Management statements are those that specify this system stream or the order by which the steps or directions must be executed. They carry out the duty of determination making, relying on the situations laid out in this system. There are 4 forms of management statements within the C programming language:

  1. Choice making
  2. Choice
  3. Iteration
  4. Soar

Choice-making statements resolve the stream of this system primarily based on logical situations like OR, AND, and NOT. The set of statements which might be nested under the decision-making statements are executed primarily based on the logical standards met. The if and if-else (and nested if-else) are units of decision-making statements in C.  

Choice statements are primarily based on case change key phrases. If the situation specified within the case key phrase is met, then the statements under the case might be executed, and else change statements might be executed. Iterations statements (or loops) are statements that repeat the set of directions current contained in the blocks till the situation is met. The looping statements in C programming language are whereas, do-while, whereas do, and for loop

A counter is often incremented or decremented contained in the looping or iterative statements to verify the loop exits when the situation is met. Soar statements are GOTO statements that may abruptly change the course of this system to execute completely different units of statements talked about within the GOTO assertion. Usually, GOTO statements usually are not really helpful in this system, as it could be troublesome to foretell the stream of this system in run time.

C Program to Discover the Factorial of a Quantity

Now let’s see a small C program primarily based on what we’ve realized above. The target of this system is to print the factorial of any given quantity.

#embody <stdio.h>

int foremost()    


 int i,factorial=1,num=zero;    

 printf(“Enter the number for which the factorial need to be calculated? “);    



  printf(“Factorial of the given number %d is %d”,num,factorial);    

return zero; 



Enter the quantity for which the factorial must be calculated?


Factorial of the given quantity 5 is 120

Profession Prospects

Although the origin of C dates again to the early 1970s, it’s nonetheless some of the most popular languages. Quite a few corporations use C as a programming language for embedded techniques growth, utility growth, and socket programming. Regardless of the invention of latest programming languages, C programming language nonetheless holds its forte and is persistently listed as a prime 10 programming language by builders. So why wait? Learn C programming and add its versatility to your resume.

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