ITIL has grow to be the de facto commonplace in IT service administration. It helps organizations in all types of industries provide their providers in a quality-driven and economical approach. The newest model of the ITIL framework, ITIL® 4, was launched in February 2019. It’s a major up to date from ITIL V3 which was in widespread use for over a decade.
Whether or not you’re already in your certification journey otherwise you’re simply researching the sphere of IT service, earlier than you begin preparing for the ITIL exams, it is useful to be taught the essential ITIL ideas and phrases, in addition to ITIL processes, to grow to be aware of the core elements of the examination. So when you’re questioning what’s ITIL precisely, and what are the particular ITIL ideas and processes, you’re in the precise place.
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ITIL stands for Info Know-how Infrastructure Library. It’s a set of greatest practices for delivering IT providers—it standardizes the choice, planning, supply and assist of IT providers to maximise effectivity and preserve predictable ranges of service. It has roots going again to the 1980s in the UK as a authorities initiative, and the framework is now coated in 5 books which can be up to date periodically. (There have been initially 30 books!)
What are the Ideas of ITIL?
ITIL has a number of key ideas which can be realized via 5 core elements. Some key ideas/ideas of ITIL are:
- Delivering most worth to prospects
- Optimizing assets and capabilities
- Providing providers which can be helpful and dependable
- Planning processes with particular objectives in thoughts
- Defining roles clearly for every job.
Earlier than we get to the 5 core elements, let’s outline some essential ITIL phrases.
Key ITIL Phrases
The specialised abilities or skills a company applies to assets in an effort to create worth.
Self-contained subsets of a company meant to perform particular duties. They often take the type of a gaggle of individuals and the instruments they use.
Structured units of actions designed to realize a particular goal. The 4 fundamental traits of processes are:
- They rework inputs into outputs
- They ship outcomes to a particular buyer or stakeholder
- They’re measurable
- They’re triggered by particular occasions
The uncooked supplies that contribute to a service, resembling cash, gear, time and employees.
Outlined collections of obligations and privileges. Roles could also be held by people or groups.
Additionally identified simply as belongings, these consult with the assets and capabilities service supplier should allocate to supply a service.
Specialised capabilities for delivering worth to prospects within the type of providers.
A method of delivering worth to prospects with out requiring them to personal particular prices and dangers.
Worth, Utility and Guarantee
The worth of a service consists of two elements: utility and guarantee. Companies should provide each utility and guarantee to have worth. Utility, additionally referred to as health for goal, refers back to the skill of the service to take away constraints or improve the efficiency of the client. Guarantee, additionally referred to as health to be used, is the power of the service to function reliably.
The 5 ITIL Levels
The framework of ITIL is split into 5 broad levels, or classes:
- Service Technique
- Service Design
- Service Transition
- Service Operation
- Continuous Service Enchancment
These elements type the skeleton of the ITIL service lifecycle.
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ITIL Processes and Features
Inside the 5 broad levels/classes of the ITIL service lifecycle are subcategories. For instance, Monetary Administration, Service Portfolio Administration, Demand Administration and Technique Operations all fall below the broader class of Service Technique.
Every subcategory of the ITIL framework is both a course of or a perform. Service Operations is the one class that has features; all the opposite ITIL classes comprise solely processes. Right here’s a diagram that exhibits whether or not every subcategory is a course of or a perform.
Now on to the 5 core elements of ITIL.
ITIL Core Element 1: Service Technique
The aim of Service Technique is to supply a technique for the service lifecycle. The technique ought to be in sync with enterprise aims. The utility and guarantee of this element are designed to make sure that the service is match for goal and match to be used, respectively. Making certain that is essential, as these two elements are what add worth to the supply of providers to prospects.
As talked about above, every main class has subcategories. Inside the class of Service Technique, there are 4 subcategories.
1. Service Portfolio Administration
The Service Portfolio is the complete set of providers below administration by a service supplier. It consists of three main elements: Service Pipeline, Service Catalog and Retired Companies. Service Portfolio Administration organizes the method by which providers are recognized, described, evaluated, chosen and chartered.
2. Demand Administration
The Demand Administration course of is worried with understanding and influencing buyer demand. It includes Person Profiles, which characterize totally different typical teams of customers for a given service, and Patterns of Enterprise Exercise, which characterize the way in which customers in numerous person profiles entry a service over the course of a given time interval.
3. Monetary Administration
The Monetary Administration course of gives a method of understanding and managing prices and alternatives related to providers. It consists of three fundamental actions:
Monitoring how cash is spent by a service supplier
Planning how cash shall be spent by a service supplier
Securing fee from prospects for providers offered
4. Technique Operations
Technique Operations be certain that providers resembling fulfilling person requests, resolving service failures, fixing issues and finishing up routine operational duties are carried out effectively and successfully.
ITIL Core Element 2: Service Design
The Service Design lifecycle section is concerning the design of providers and all supporting parts for introduction into the stay setting. The “Four Ps of Service Design” characterize areas that ought to be considered when designing a service. They’re:
Human assets and organizational buildings required to assist the service
Service Administration processes required to assist the service
Know-how and different infrastructure required to assist the service
Third events that supply further assist required to assist the service
There are seven processes included in Service Design.
1. Service Catalog Administration
The Service Catalog is a subset that comprises providers accessible to prospects and customers. It’s usually the one portion of the Service portfolio seen to prospects. It generally acts because the entry portal for all data providers within the stay setting.
2. Service Stage Administration
Service Level Management is charged with securing and managing agreements between prospects and the service supplier relating to the extent of efficiency (utility) and stage of reliability (guarantee) related to particular providers. Service Stage Administration ends in the creation of Service Stage Agreements (SLAs) between prospects and the supplier. Operational Stage Agreements (OLAs) are efficiency agreements practically equivalent in nature to SLAs.
3. Availability Administration
The Availability Administration course of is worried with administration and achievement of agreed-upon availability necessities as established in Service Stage Agreements. In ITIL, “availability” is outlined as “the ability of a system, service or configuration item to perform its function when required.”
4. Capability Administration
Capability Administration is worried with guaranteeing that always, cost-effective capability exists that meets or exceeds the wants of the enterprise as established in Service Stage Agreements. In ITIL, “capacity” is outlined as “the maximum throughput a service, system or device can handle.” Capability Administration is split into three main actions:
- Enterprise Capability Administration (BCM)
- Service Capability Administration (SCM)
- Element Capability Administration (CCM)
5. Service Continuity Administration
The Service Continuity Administration course of (ITSCM) ensures that the service supplier can at all times present the minimal agreed-upon ranges of service. IT Service Continuity Administration makes use of strategies resembling Enterprise Impression Evaluation (BIA) and Administration of Danger (MOR). It ends in the manufacturing of the IT Service Continuity Plan, which is a facet of the general Enterprise Continuity Plan.
IT Safety Administration focuses on defending 5 fundamental qualities of knowledge belongings:
Assurance that the asset is obtainable solely to applicable events
Assurance that the asset has not been modified by unauthorized events
Assurance that the asset could also be utilized when required
Assurance that the transactions and the identities of events to transactions are real
Assurance that transactions, as soon as accomplished, will not be reversed with out approval
7. Provider Administration
Provider Administration is charged with acquiring worth for cash from third-party suppliers. It performs a really comparable position to that of Service Stage Administration, however with respect to exterior suppliers quite than inner suppliers and inner/exterior prospects. Provider Administration handles provider analysis, contract negotiations, efficiency critiques, renewals and terminations.
ITIL Core Element 3: Service Transition
The target of the Service Transition course of is to construct and deploy IT providers, ensuring that modifications to providers and Service Administration processes are carried out in a coordinated approach.
On this section of the lifecycle, the design is constructed, examined and moved into manufacturing to allow the enterprise buyer to realize the specified worth. This section addresses managing modifications: controlling the belongings and configuration gadgets (the underlying elements, resembling hardware and software program) related to the brand new and adjusted programs, service validation, testing and transition planning to make sure that customers, assist personnel and the manufacturing setting have been ready for the discharge to manufacturing. There are seven processes inside the class of Service Transition.
1. Change Administration
The target of this course of exercise is to manage the lifecycle of all of the modifications with minimal disruption to IT providers.
The target of the Analysis course of is to evaluate main modifications, such because the introduction of a brand new service or a considerable change to an present service, earlier than these modifications are allowed to proceed to the subsequent section of their lifecycle.
3. Transition Planning and Assist (Mission Administration)
This course of focuses on planning and coordinating the usage of assets to deploy a significant launch inside the predicted value, time and high quality estimates.
4. Launch and Deployment Administration
The target of this course of is to plan, schedule and management the motion of releases to testing and stay environments, guaranteeing that the integrity of the stay setting is protected and that the right elements are launched.
5. Service Validation and Testing
This course of ensures that deployed releases and the ensuing providers meet buyer expectations, and verifies that IT operations are in a position to assist the brand new service.
6. Service Asset and Configuration Administration
The target is to take care of details about configuration gadgets required to ship an IT service, together with their relationships.
7. Information Administration
The target is to assemble, analyze, retailer and share data and knowledge inside a company, bettering effectivity by decreasing the necessity to rediscover data.
ITIL Core Element 4: Service Operations
This stage focuses on assembly finish customers’ expectations whereas balancing prices and discovering any potential issues. The Service Operations course of consists of fulfilling person requests, resolving service failures, fixing issues and finishing up routine operational duties. That is the one class of the 5 that has features in addition to processes. There are 5 processes and 4 features.
1. Occasion Administration (course of)
The target is to ensure configuration gadgets (CIs) and providers are continually monitored, and to filter and categorize occasions in an effort to determine on applicable actions.
2. Incident Administration (course of)
The target is to handle the lifecycle of all incidents, returning the IT service to customers as shortly as attainable.
3. Request Fulfilment (course of)
The target is to meet service requests, which typically are minor modifications (for instance, requests to vary a password) or requests for data.
4. Entry Administration (course of)
The target is to grant approved customers the precise to make use of a service whereas stopping entry to unauthorized customers. The Entry Administration course of primarily executes insurance policies outlined in Info Safety Administration. It’s typically additionally known as Rights Administration or Id Administration.
5. Drawback Administration (course of)
The target is to handle the lifecycle of all issues, stopping incidents from occurring and minimizing the impression of incidents that can not be prevented. Proactive Drawback Administration analyzes incident information and makes use of knowledge collected by different IT Service Administration processes to establish traits or vital issues.
6. IT Operations Administration (perform)
The target is to observe and management the IT providers and their underlying infrastructure, executing day-to-day routine duties associated to the operation of infrastructure elements and functions. This consists of job scheduling, backing up and restoring, print and output administration, and routine upkeep.
7. Service Desk (perform)
That is the purpose of contact between customers and the service supplier. A service desk often handles communication with the customers and likewise manages incidents and repair requests.
8. Software Administration (perform)
Software Administration is liable for managing functions all through their lifecycle.
9. Technical Administration (perform)
Technical Administration gives technical experience and assist for administration of the IT infrastructure.
ITIL Core Element 5: Continuous Service Enchancment (CSI)
The target of this stage is to make use of strategies from high quality administration to be taught from previous successes and failures. It goals to repeatedly enhance the effectiveness and effectivity of IT processes and providers in step with the idea of continuous enchancment adopted in ISO 2000. There is just one course of on this space, and it has seven steps:
- Figuring out enchancment methods
- Defining what shall be measured
- Gathering knowledge
- Processing knowledge
- Analyzing knowledge
- Presenting and utilizing the knowledge drawn from the information
- Utilizing the knowledge to enhance
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ITIL Processes and Levels: Abstract
To recap, there are 5 foremost levels of ITIL: Service Technique, Service Design, Service Transition, Service Operations, and Continuous Service Enchancment. Every of these levels has subcategories of processes. The Service Operations class has features in addition to processes. All the ITIL processes and levels work collectively to maximise effectivity and reliability of providers and to make sure continuous enchancment of providers.
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